Protection of life and property is confirmed in the Shari`ah by faith and pledge of security (`ahd al-aman); just as the life of a Muslim is protected, so is the life of the people who are granted security pledge, be it of a permanent or temporal nature, and whether these people live inside or outside Muslim countries. Any aggression against any of such protected people is considered a vicious treachery and a forbidden violation that is resented by Allah and His Messenger.
Persons enjoying protection by virtue of a security pledge include the following:
A musta’man – a person belonging to a country at war with Muslims, who is admitted to a Muslim country by a temporary security pledge for a certain purpose.
A mu`ahid – a person belonging to a country that has a peace agreement, be it permanent or temporary, with Muslims. This is the norm of the international relationships nowadays.
A dhimmi – a permanent non-Muslim resident of dar al-Islam (Muslim lands) who enjoys its full citizenship rights and abides by its system, exactly as other Muslim citizens do.