Justice and Tolerance in the Qur’an

There are many nations in the world with different colors, creeds, and languages. These differences, as

mentioned earlier, have been a cause of enmity throughout history in societies that did not live by religious moral values. The perceived wisdom is that people can never manage to co-exist and that disputes arise wherever such differences exist. However, this is a great misconception and the facts are otherwise. In fact, it is Allah Who created human beings in different communities and in the Qur’an, He calls all people to peace and security:

O You who believe! Enter absolutely into peace [Islam]. Do not follow in the footsteps of satan. He is an outright enemy to you. (Surat al-Baqara, 208)

Allah calls to the Abode of Peace and He guides whom He wills to a straight path. (Surah Yunus, 25)

All divine religions revealed through Allah‘s messengers summon people to have faith in Allah, recommend them to display moral perfection and warn them against bad morals. Despite the fact that all divine religions—except for Islam—are distorted, it is evident today that some of their messages are fundamentally the same. That is why these conflicts, which are stirred up artificially, lack reasonable and logical grounds. As stated in the verse above, the main reason for unrest among people is not complying with Allah‘s summoning but following in the “footsteps of satan.”

Believers’ harbouring hostile feelings to other people who have faith in Allah is a moral weakness that displeases Allah, who prohibits all believers from displaying such feelings. He calls on people to establish peace, sevgi and friendship. In the Qur’an, revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (saas), the last Messenger of Allah, Allah gives believers explicit commands and recommendations on this subject.


In the Qur’an, Jews and Christians, the members of the religions who abide by the Divine Books revealed by Allah, are called the “People of the Book.” What Muslims’ views of the People of the Book should be, their relations, and the status of the People of the Book in social life are described in verses and the sayings of the Prophet Muhammad (saas) in detail. The People of the Book, while they rely basically on Allah‘s revelation, have moral precepts and know what is lawful and what is not. For this reason, if one of the People of the Book cooks some food, it is lawful for Muslims to eat it. In the same way, permission has been given to a Muslim man to marry a woman from among the People of the Book. On this subject Allah commands:

Today all good things have been made lawful for you. And the food of those given the Book is also lawful for you and your food is lawful for them. So are chaste women from among the believers and chaste women of those given the Book before you, once you have given them their dowries in marriage, not in fornication or taking them as lovers. But as for anyone who disbelieves, his actions will come to nothing and in the Hereafter he will be among the losers. (Surat Al-Ma’ida, 5)

Throughout Islamic history, the People of the Book have been always treated with compassion in Muslim societies. This was particularly evident in the Ottoman Empire. It is a well known fact that the Jews, whose rights were denied and were exiled by the Catholic Kingdom of Spain, took refuge in the lands of the Ottoman Empire. As will be dealt with in detail in the following sections, when Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror captured Istanbul, he granted both Christians and Jews all their fundamental rights. Throughout Ottoman history, Jews were regarded as a People of the Book and enjoyed peaceful coexistence with Muslims. more