The Illusion of War: Is Terrorism a Criminal Act or an Act of War?

The traditional Western norm is that wars only take place between nation-states, not between nation-states and criminal organizations, gangs, drug cartels, the Mafia, and other non-state actors. 15 An act of terrorism, unless sponsored by a state, does not constitute an ‘act of war’. According to Jacob Hornberger in his article, Criminal Offenses vs. Acts of War, “[Acts of Terrorism] remain police matters, whether it’s the military, the police, the DEA, or some other federal agency being employed to bring suspects to justice.” 16  It is evident that conflicts have taken place over time that have eroded the interpretation of warfare, and changed our perception to be more inclusive. However, it is imperative to note that war, by international standards, is conducted on a state to state level….more: mackenzieinstitute